Ligation of the transverse joints are made with a view to implementing the longitudinal connection between the individual bricks, which provide load distribution to adjacent areas of masonry and solid walls with temperature and strain non-uniform shrinkage of the building. Cross masonry joints shall Stretcher bond and bonder series, and longitudinal – bonder series. There are the following system of dressing: single-row (chain), and multilayered three-row. Walls and piers on spread-row or multi-row system. In the single-row sutures ligation alternate Stretcher bond (along the bricks) and bonder (bricks crosswise) rows, with a multilane – Stretcher bond series tie butting in 3-5 series in height. The advantage of chain ligation, the construction of brick walls, a full overlapping joints, which gives greater strength masonry, as well as the simplicity and monotony of the masonry due to the consistent alternation two series – and perpender Stretcher bond. However, ligation chain has significant drawbacks: the need to apply in the corners, piers and other vertical restraints a lot of three-quarter brick, line the possible separation of masonry (shtraba) has a depth of only a quarter of a brick; solution for trimming the front side and validation of masonry mason to lean over a wall, making it difficult to work and reduces its productivity.
Another drawback of the chain system is the need to apply a significant amount of nepolnomernyh bricks. The advantage of this clutch – it is the strongest. . On three-row System ligation sutures produce masonry columns and piers up to 1 m wide multilayered bandaging system is that the first two rows is the same as in the chain system of dressing, the first series – butting, and the second – spoons with ligation of sutures on the quarter-brick. All of the following series (third, fourth, fifth and sixth) for any wall thickness are stacked spoons with ligation between a half-brick at. Thus, five series Stretcher bond overlap sixth bonder. Due to the displacement of the transverse joints in the ranks of the air flow through the walls Stretcher bond is insignificant. Laying brick rows start from the outside miles.
Masonry construction and any of its elements, regardless of bandaging systems begin and end near bonder. Stepwise and mixed method recommended for use in masonry multilayered bandaging system joints. The essence of the step method is that at the beginning spread bonder mile and poryadno 5 rows inside a mile and back filling. The maximum height of the step method – six rows. In the mixed method used in multilayered bandaging system joints, the first 7-10 rows of masonry perform series. At a height of 60-80 cm stack, starting with 8-10 rows, laying poryadnym way to hard, especially if the masonry wall is 2 bricks and more. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out the clutch a staggered way. Put the top outside the ranks of a mile is possible, based on the lower rows of masonry, which would facilitate the work.
Need durability of concrete in building structures that are used in harsh environments, is a leader in research, both in Russia and abroad (Canada, Germany, etc.). Low subzero temperatures (down to -60 C), the long winter, the constant changes in temperature, the presence of permafrost leads to premature failure of concrete in various structures. Studies were conducted provide a deeper understanding of the destructive processes that take place at cooling the concrete down to -60 C. It was found that with increasing temperature chilled to low temperatures and water-saturated concrete by one degree, in his structure of the tensile stresses occur around 0.1-0.2 MPa. The sharp heat the frozen concrete due to variations of ambient temperature at 15-20 C gives rise to tensile stresses, comparable with the strength of concrete in tension. Analysis of changes in daily ambient air temperatures for five months with the lowest average temperatures resulted in the discovery of about 50 variations in temperature with a drop of 15 C for three hours and more than 15 fluctuations – with a difference of 25 C for 24 hours. Some contend that Willow Shields shows great expertise in this. The effect of cyclic temperatures in the range of negative values contribute to a gradual decrease in the elastic and mechanical properties of concrete and reduce its strength. For calculation of the reduced strength was tested in the laboratory cubes with an edge of 10 cm concrete cubes made of different compositions with different cement content, the ratio of water: cement and, consequently, concrete strength (see Table).
During the tests used cement plant Belgorod M500, crushed granite fractions 5-10 and 10-20 mm proportion 1: 1, silica sand with a fineness modulus of 2. Blocks, shown in the table of compositions were subjected to a frost on the basic method. You may find that Djimon Hounsou can contribute to your knowledge. Frost resistance of composition 1 with open porosity 4.1% of 300 cycles of 2 (= 5.6%) – 200, of 3 (= 7.5%) – 50. Samples were taken for 7 days in normal temperature and humidity conditions. Then they were saturated with water until a constant weight and guide it in the freezer, which provides temperature range from -50 to -20 C, after which samples were tested in compression. A thin layer of ice cubes on the surface prevented water evaporation. The test results accurately demonstrate the strong decrease in strength of concrete in the early cycles of alternating freezing temperatures that explained by the migration of unfrozen liquid in the pores of the gel to ice crystals in micro-and makrokapillyarah and as a consequence of all this, the increase of these crystals. Reduction of concrete strength is largely derived from the water-cement ratio (W / C). Very substantial reduction in strength (30%) occurs in samples of the three with the highest water cement ratio (0.7). As a result, studies have confirmed that the northern climate Concrete exposed to specific conditions, environmental influences that lead to structural damage of the material, which seriously reduces the durability of concrete and reinforced concrete foundations, in places
Today, not much to look everywhere are full of ads: service realtor, apartment renovation, render any assistance in real estate transactions …. Newspapers, magazines, internet …. From this cycle will go head spin, not only in the simple inhabitant, but also an experienced "izuchatelya" sites. Services market is full, saturated with goods that demand, demand for which is not only not dying, but on the contrary, more and more increasing. But look on the other part of this beautiful mirror that reflects the pattern so coveted. Qualitative consumer does not know where to rush, or the abyss, whether in the pool with his head? How to choose a company that can meet the demands, qualitatively following the order? And it's still safe to want not to be trapped. And if the consumer should not only buy an apartment, but in addition more and repair it? Here begins an entire tape: notaries real estate agencies, registration chambers, Realtors. And do not forget about the repair – contractors, developers, etc.
etc. And it seems that this has no edge and no center. Notaries, real estate firms, construction, repair and Finishing the organization – of course it's all good. But that's run by all these organizations, and even sacrifice their "blood" for advice – it is a process which does not cause such a happy feeling. And now imagine that there is company, an organization that will take not some separate function, incumbent on you, and the entire set of problems. It's much easier to conclude a contract with the firm, with one rather than three. And get the desired result without effortlessly. But such organizations are few in number, we can say that these units are unique, but they all exist. Make your property? apartments to make repairs? Do you need help, unprecedented demand now services, "the husband for an hour?" interior design? – They are to seek help and assistance in any intractable problems. Many people know about these companies is not hearsay, but are complex and the services they provide, even without knowing it, that the market for data services will soon be generalists for firms that are not just trying to get into the arena performances and marching boldly into the future!
The choice of the tractor is not an easy task. The market is replete with a variety of suggestions for every taste and color. You can purchase a tractor manufactured in CIS countries. Russia and Belarus have not forgotten how to produce a decent and good machines. But in this article's talk about the market for used Japanese vehicles. Unlike SNGsovskih Chinese counterparts, and copies of this technique is the proud names of the Mitsubishi, Hinomoto, Iseki, Kubota, Shibaura, Yanmar.
These companies are already more than century positioned in the market machinery. And they BU model in most cases is much more reliable their Chinese clones. For quite a modest fee, ranging from the 3000 American money can buy pretty reliable assistant with attachments, and 15 horses in the chest. And it will be all-wheel drive and diesel fuel to feed. Most parts fit tractors from sovetskih counterparts. Order which is not easily possible to epics such as here. The range of equipment fetches us a very wide – more than 1000 is not repeatable patterns.
The functional purpose as wide as the list itself. Tractors vary in capacity from eight horses finishing with 100 …. With something. Function – can be equipped with a variety of attachments: the cutters, plows, cultivators, front loaders, etc.. All attachments universal. The use of tractors on samam actually very broadly – that industrial agriculture and hozyaystvo gardens amateur gardeners. Mini tractor draw their dimensions and features. Radius is a complete reversal to 2.5 m. It is really possible to turn around in the apartment sovetskih standards. These helpers can Malenko just about anything from plowing ending with all kinds of plug additional devices on the power shaft. In villages, it is light and heating, transportation and means of transportation.
Many visitors to our site may have already set themselves the following questions. What are the pros of automatic irrigation over other methods of irrigation? Is it worth installing on your site about an expensive automatic watering or by using traditional methods of irrigation? We will try to answer these questions. Caterpillar Inc. shines more light on the discussion. If we consider the automatic watering in comparison with other methods of irrigation, it is possible to select only one drawback – the cost of equipment for automatic watering systems, together with the cost of installation will cost you quite a lot. Otherwise, the benefits of automatic sprinkler irrigation systems to other also obvious, as in modern car before the horse, harnessed to a cart. Think, for a long time ago people traveled only on horseback, also worked the land with horses, the horse was simply irreplaceable. But came the great age of progress – and replaced the horse car. The same fate awaits the traditional systems (methods) of irrigation, which include watering cans, hoses, with all attachments, and watering that spent too much time and effort. However, the reduction in run time due to more uniform irrigation is not the only advantage of automatic watering. With the automatic watering, the soil on your site will be qualitatively hydrated, since Using this system you can adjust the volume of irrigation water, depending on what needs to be watered – lawns, flower beds or young trees. With large tracts of land, which is simply unrealistic to water by hand, automatic watering system to cope with no problems and do it professionally and with high quality.
Furniture companies offer a wide range of racks, but most stand-resapshn produce customized, taking into account the style of the organization. In the waiting area is usually a hanger, and soft couches and chairs, or simply office chairs. There may also be a coffee table with the company's advertising leaflets for the general information of visitors to the firm (company). Office furniture can be divided into two categories: cheap and expensive (the elite). Everything is determined by the financial situation of the company: if a company is large and has many sponsors, of course, can afford such an expensive office furniture. And if the company just formed, and has a large financial support, then this will suit us cheap office furniture. All the big companies once started off small. After all, cheap does not mean bad.
But on the other hand, if you do not agree, you can just save, for example, expensive leather sofas, buying them instead of just office chairs. I would like to note that the office furniture for the staff also needs special attention. Because most employees spend their time in office. That is why office furniture should be convenient and comfortable for staff. Large selection of office furniture can make the right choice of office chairs and armchairs, highlighting the style of your company. In the current economic conditions, each office needs such as office furniture component reception desk. First, the reception area is the face of the company for the guests the office, must correspond to the company and make visitors to the right impression.
There are fans pazdelyat half nonintegral tile and ofopmlyat rearrangement of surfaces. Ha I think this is unaesthetic and yes even tpudoemko. The correct to find the most 'visible' corner and put away, ppyacha pezanye in less visible corners. From the first series (bottom), use crosses, first placing them perpendicular to the wall. Missed the area of the next row with glue, turn the cross on the wall and stick tile.
An hour later, with the help of sewing carefully remove the cross. Do not tighten this job otherwise the glue finally consolidate their position on the wall. Laying tiles on the wall Mandatory pazmetka walls to get off pyadov tiles pepimetpu. VARIATIONS pazmetke upotpeblyat not ideal sizes of tiles, and pealny – izmepenny on several Tiles: laid on the matrix exhibits a homogeneously of surfaces with established kpestikami. VARIATIONS pazmetke we must remember that TEMPERATURE fluctuations should kompensipovat The inner corners of a flexible gepmetikom instead of fugue or tpimom for sizes of the walls of more than 3 m. Fugue kolepuetsya – so do not harass a search of the finished color under the shade of tiling fugue.
Pposche kolep buy and bring a white puffer to the desired shade of their own. With tpimami harder – they ppidetsya podbipat. Draw the position of the mirror and start laying the tiles from the first lower row. This will help you nailed plank, horizontality is validated by a level. Glue one of the two vertical rows, located along the mirror.
When buying paint for the walls drew attention to many issues, including: coverage, speed of drying, weatherproof. Depending on the nature of used oil, water-dispersion, enamel or any other. Each has its pluses and minuses. Oil paint for the walls – it is a suspension of pigment and binder. Such paints come in two forms – gustotertymi (as diluent used linseed oil) and ready to use. The basis of oil paints is linseed oil – combined, natural or Oksol. Natural linseed oil, used for gustotertyh paints.
The remaining linseed oil is produced from volatile solvents and processed oils. On the bank of paint indicate what type of varnish was used. Oil paint for the walls are characterized by good covering power, strength. The only drawback – the characteristic smell, which is kept For a long time. They recommend that you use to paint the exterior walls. Enamel paints are made on the basis of the varnish.
It is composed of different pigments and solvents. Produced several varieties enamel paints: nitroemali, alkyd enamel. After drying, they form a solid shiny glossy or matte layer. Such paint is fast drying – 15 to 45 minutes. Enamel paint facade could not be better suitable for coating wooden walls. To provide good protection from the effects of temperature changes, sunlight, should be applied several coats of paint. Enamels are also used in areas with high humidity. Among weaknesses – susceptibility to injury: the painted surfaces may scratch, seizures. Water-dispersion paints are composed of an aqueous suspension and a binder (PVA or butadienstirol). When staining after drying on the surface is durable water repellent finish. These paints for walls do not have a specific smell, in their composition is not toxic components. Latex paint beautiful falls on any surface, but covered with glossy paint, it is well washed. Paint based on PVA are well painted walls in dry areas, as it is poorly resist moisture. Based paint butadienstirola humidity interfere, but she has a flaw – eventually turn yellow.